The largest town in the Southeast and Ireland's oldest city, Waterford was founded by the Vikings in the 9th century and was taken over by Strongbow, the Norman invader, with much bloodshed in 1170. The city resisted Cromwell's 1649 attacks but fell the following year. It did not prosper again until 1783, when George and William Penrose set out to create "plain and cut flint glass, useful and ornamental," and thereby set in
motion a glass-manufacturing industry long without equal. The famed glassworks closed in 2008, but Waterford Crystal has triumphantly risen from the flames in a smaller, leaner version that opened in 2010.