Pamplona (Iruña in Euskera) is known worldwide for its running of the bulls, made famous by Ernest Hemingway in his 1926 novel The Sun Also Rises. The occasion is the festival of San Fermín, July 6–14, when Pamplona's population triples (along with its hotel rates), so reserve rooms months in advance. Every morning at 8 sharp a rocket is shot off, and the bulls kept overnight in the corrals at the edge of town are run through a series of closed-off streets leading to the bullring, a nearly 2,800-foot dash. Running among them are Spaniards and foreigners feeling audacious (or foolhardy) enough to risk getting gored. The degree of peril in the thrilling encierro (running, literally "enclosing") is difficult to gauge. Serious injuries occur nearly every day during the festival; deaths are rare but always a possibility. After the bulls' frantic gallop through town, every one of them is killed in the bullring, a fact that draws ire from many anti-bullfighting Spaniards and animal rights groups. Running is free, but tickets to corridas (bullfights) can be hard to snag.
Founded by the Roman emperor Pompey as Pompaelo, or Pampeiopolis, Pamplona was successively taken by the Franks, the Goths, and the Moors. In 750, the Pamplonians put themselves under the protection of Charlemagne and managed to expel the Arabs temporarily. But the foreign commander took advantage of this trust to destroy the city walls; when he was driven out once more by the Moors, the Navarrese took their revenge, ambushing and slaughtering the retreating Frankish army as it fled over the Pyrenees through the mountain pass of Roncesvalles in 778. This is the episode depicted in the 11th-century Song of Roland, the earliest surviving major work of French literature, although its anonymous French poet cast the aggressors as Moors. For centuries after that, Pamplona remained three argumentative towns until they were forcibly incorporated into one city by Carlos III (the Noble, 1387–1425) of Navarra.