• Photo: David Herraez Calzada / Shutterstock
  • Photo: (c) Mancio | Dreamstime.com
  • Photo: <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwanasimba/7378276924/">Musée Granet</a> by
  • Photo: (c) Joymsk | Dreamstime.com
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  • Photo: Nikolay Dimitrov - ecobo / Shutterstock
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  • Photo: Anilah / Shutterstock
  • Photo: <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/14017861840/">Le musée d'Histoire de Marseille</a> by Jean-Pierre Dalbéra
  • Photo: fullempty / Shutterstock

Aix, Marseille, and the Central Coast

When you cross the imaginary border into Provence for the first time, you may experience a niggling sense of déjà vu. The sun-drenched angular red rooftops, the dagger-narrow cypresses, the picture-perfect port towns, and the brooding massifs fire the imagination in a deep, soul-stirring way. And it's no wonder: some of the world's greatest artists were inspired by the unforgettable landscapes found here.

Cézanne colored his canvases in daubs of russet and black-green, the rough-cut structure of bluff and twisted pine inspiring a building-block approach to painting that for others gelled into Cubism. Marcel Pagnol painted pictures with words: the smells of thyme and rosemary crunching underfoot, the sounds of thunder rumbling behind rain-starved hills, the quiet joy of opening shutters at dawn to a chorus of blackbirds in the olive grove. Both Cézanne and Pagnol were native sons of this region east of the Rhône, who were inspired to eloquence by the primordial landscape and its echoes of antiquity. And yet, like most who visit the region, they were equally fascinated with the modern Provençal world and its complex melding of the ancient with the new.

A visit to this region can encompass the best of urban culture, seaside, and arid backcountry. Aix is a small, manageable city with a leisurely pace, studded with stunning architecture and a lively concentration of arts, due in part to its active university life. Marseille offers the yang to Aix's yin. Its brash style, bold monuments, and spectacular sun-washed waterfront center are reminiscent of those of Naples or modern Athens; it is often maligned for its crime rate and big-city energy, and often unfairly neglected by visitors. Up in the dry inland hills, Pagnol's hometown of Aubagne gives a glimpse of local life, with a big farmers' market in the plane tree–lined town center and makers of santons (terra-cotta figurines) at every turn. Both the lovely port village of Cassis and the busy beach town of Bandol allow time to watch the tides come and go, though for the ultimate retreat, take the boat that leaves for the almost tropical Îles d'Hyères. Like most of this region, these islands are a true idyll, but even more so for being car-free.

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