The Basque Separatist Movement
With all the recent brouhaha over Catalan independence, it's easy to forget that the Basque Country endured a similar movement that culminated in the death of nearly 900 people over the course of four decades at the hands of ETA, or Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Basque Homeland and Liberty). Officially disbanded as of May 2018, the terrorist organization is no longer a threat, and the 2006 Madrid airport bombing was the group's last significant act of violence. In October 2013, Strasbourg’s European Court of Human Rights ordered the release of many long-term ETA prisoners, much to the dissatisfaction of the Spanish government and victims' rights associations. And while there are still plenty of Basque separatists across the region, overall there is hope that Spain's greatest post-Franco tragedy is in the rearview mirror.