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Perhaps more than any other region in the United States, New Mexico has its own distinctive cuisine and architectural style, both heavily influenced by Native American, Spanish-colonial, Mexican, and American frontier traditions. The brief glossary that follows explains terms used frequently in this book.
Aguacate: Spanish for avocado, the key ingredient of guacamole.
Albóndigas: Meatballs, usually cooked with rice in a meat broth.
Bizcochitos: Buttery cookies flavored with cinnamon and anise seeds and served typically at Christmas but available throughout the year.
Burrito: A warm flour tortilla wrapped around meat, beans, and vegetables and smothered in chiles and cheese; many New Mexicans also love breakfast burritos (filled with any combination of the above, along with eggs and, typically, bacon or sausage and potatoes).
Calabacitas: Summer squash, usually served with corn, chiles, and other vegetables.
Carne adovada: Red-chile-marinated pork (or, occasionally, chicken).
Chalupa: A corn tortilla deep-fried in the shape of a bowl, filled with pinto beans (sometimes meat), and topped with cheese, guacamole, sour cream, lettuce, tomatoes, and salsa.
Chicharrones: Fried pork rinds.
Chilaquiles: Often served at breakfast, this casserole-like dish consists of small pieces of fried tortillas baked with red or green chiles, bits of chicken or cheese, and sometimes eggs.
Chile relleno: A poblano pepper peeled, stuffed with cheese or a special mixture of spicy ingredients, dipped in batter, and fried.
Chile: A stewlike dish with Texas origins that typically contains beans, beef, and red chile.
Chiles: New Mexico's infamous hot peppers, which come in an endless variety of sizes and in various degrees of hotness, from the thumb-size jalapeño to the smaller and often hotter serrano. They can be canned or fresh, dried or cut up into salsa. Most traditional New Mexican dishes are served either with green, red, or both types of chiles (ask for "Christmas" when indicating to your server that you'd like both red and green). Famous regional uses for green chile include green-chile stew (usually made with shredded pork), green-chile cheeseburgers, and green-chile-and-cheese tamales.
Chimichanga: The same as a burrito, only deep-fried and topped with a dab of sour cream or salsa. (The chimichanga was allegedly invented in Tucson, Arizona.)
Chipotle: A dried smoked jalapeño with a smoky, almost sweet, chocolaty flavor.
Chorizo: Well-spiced Spanish sausage, made with pork and red chiles.
Enchilada: A rolled or flat corn tortilla filled with meat, chicken, seafood, or cheese, an enchilada is covered with chile and baked. The ultimate enchilada is made with blue Native American corn tortillas. New Mexicans order them flat, sometimes topped with a fried egg.
Fajitas: A Tex-Mex dish of grilled beef, chicken, fish, or roasted vegetables and served with peppers, onions, and pico de gallo, served with tortillas; traditionally known as arracheras.
Flauta: A tortilla filled with cheese or meat and rolled into a flutelike shape ("flauta" means flute) and lightly fried.
Frijoles refritos: Refried beans, often seasoned with lard or cheese.
Frito Pie: Originally from Texas but extremely popular in New Mexican diners and short-order restaurants, this savory, humble casserole consists of Fritos snack chips layered with chile, cheese, green onions, and pinto beans.
Guacamole: Mashed avocado, mixed with tomatoes, garlic, onions, lemon juice, and chiles, used as a dip, a side dish, or a topping.
Hatch: A small southern New Mexico town in the Mesilla Valley, known for its outstanding production and quality of both green and red chiles. The "Hatch" name often is found on canned chile food products.
Huevos rancheros: New Mexico's answer to eggs Benedict—eggs doused with chile and sometimes melted cheese, served on top of a corn tortilla (they're best with a side order of chorizo).
Nopalitos: The pads of the prickly pear cactus, typically cut up and served uncooked in salads or baked or stir-fried as a vegetable side dish. (The tangy-sweet, purplish-red fruit of the prickly pear is often used to make juice drinks and margaritas.)
Posole: Resembling popcorn soup, this is a sublime marriage of lime, hominy, pork, chiles, garlic, and spices.
Quesadilla: A folded flour tortilla filled with cheese and meat or vegetables and warmed or lightly fried so the cheese melts.
Queso: Cheese; an ingredient in many Mexican and Southwestern recipes (cheddar or Jack is used most commonly in New Mexican dishes).
Ristra: String of dried red chile peppers, often used as decoration.
Salsa: Finely chopped concoction of green and red chile peppers, mixed with onion, garlic, and other spices.
Sopaipilla: Puffy deep-fried bread that's similar to Navajo fry bread (found in Arizona and western New Mexico); it's served either as a dessert with honey drizzled over it or savory as a meal stuffed with pinto beans or meat.
Taco: A corn or flour tortilla served either soft, or baked or fried and served in a hard shell; it's then stuffed with vegetables or spicy meat and garnished with shredded lettuce, chopped tomatoes, onions, and grated cheese.
Tacos al carbón: Shredded pork cooked in a mole sauce and folded into corn tortillas.
Tamale: Ground corn made into a dough, often filled with finely ground pork and red chiles; it's steamed in a corn husk.
Tortilla: A thin pancake made of corn or wheat flour, a tortilla is used as bread, as an edible "spoon," and as a container for other foods. Locals place butter in the center of a hot tortilla, roll it up, and eat it as a scroll.
Trucha en terra-cotta: Fresh trout wrapped in corn husks and baked in clay.
Verde: Spanish for "green," as in chile verde (a green chile sauce).
Adobe: A brick of sun-dried earth and clay, usually stabilized with straw; a structure made of adobe.
Banco: A small bench, or banquette, often upholstered with handwoven textiles, that gracefully emerges from adobe walls.
Bulto: Folk-art figures of a santo (saint), usually carved from wood.
Camposanto: A graveyard.
Capilla: A chapel.
Casita: Literally "small house," this term is generally used to describe a separate guesthouse.
Cerquita: A spiked, wrought-iron, rectangular fence, often marking grave sites.
Coyote fence: A type of wooden fence that surrounds many New Mexico homes; it comprises branches, usually from cedar or aspen trees, arranged vertically and wired tightly together.
Farolito: Small votive candles set in paper-bag lanterns, farolitos are popular at Christmastime. The term is used in northern New Mexico only. People in Albuquerque and points south call the lanterns luminarias, which in the north is the term for the bonfires of Christmas Eve.
Heishi: Technically the word means "shell necklace," but the common usage refers to necklaces made with rounded, thin, disc-shaped beads in various materials, such as turquoise or jet.
Hornos: Domed outdoor ovens made of plastered adobe or concrete blocks.
Kiva: A circular ceremonial room, built at least partially underground, used by Pueblo Indians of the Southwest. Entrance is gained from the roof.
Kiva fireplace: A corner fireplace whose round form resembles that of a kiva.
Nicho: A built-in shelf cut into an adobe or stucco wall.
Placita: A small plaza.
Portal: A porch or large covered area adjacent to a house.
Pueblo Revival (also informally called Pueblo style): Most homes in this style, modeled after the traditional dwellings of the Southwest Pueblo Indians, are cube or rectangle shaped. Other characteristics are flat roofs, thick adobe or stucco walls, small windows, rounded corners, and viga beams.
Retablo: Holy image painted on wood or tin.
Santero: Maker of religious images.
Terrones adobes: Adobe cut from the ground rather than formed from mud.
Viga: Horizontal roof beam made of logs, usually protruding from the side of the house.