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The Interior really only has two health concerns: hypothermia, and mosquito-induced insanity. To prevent going insane when you're being attacked by a cloud of mosquitoes—and they grow them big in the interior—DEET, and lots of it, is your best bet. And don’t wear blue. Mosquitoes really like blue.
Hypothermia, the lowering of the body's core temperature, is an ever-present threat in Alaska's wilderness. Wear layers of warm clothing when the weather is cool or wet; this includes a good wind- and waterproof parka or shell, warm hat and gloves, and waterproof or water-resistant boots. Heed the advice of locals who will tell you "cotton kills." It does nothing to move moisture away from your skin, and can speed the onset of hypothermia. Any time you're in the wilderness, eat regularly to maintain energy, and stay hydrated.
Early symptoms of hypothermia are shivering, accelerated heartbeat, and goose bumps; this may be followed by clumsiness, slurred speech, disorientation, and unconsciousness. In the extreme, hypothermia can result in death. If you notice any of these symptoms in yourself or anyone in your group, stop, add layers of clothing, light a fire or camp stove, and warm up; a cup of tea or any hot fluid also helps. Avoid alcohol, which speeds hypothermia and impairs judgment. If your clothes are wet, change immediately. Be sure to put on a warm hat (most of the body's heat is lost through the head) and gloves. If there are only two of you, stay together: a person with hypothermia should never be left alone. Keep an eye on your traveling companions; frequently people won't recognize the symptoms in themselves until it's too late. For the person it’s happening to, except for the shivering, hypothermia is really kind of peaceful, so watch out for each other and stay dry and safe.