One of the largest and most impressive fortresses in Wales, and one of the few still to be surrounded by its original moat, Caerphilly must have been awe-inspiring at the time of its construction in the 13th century. Built by an Anglo-Norman lord, the concentric fortification contained powerful inner and outer defenses. It was badly damaged during the English Civil War, although extensive 20th-century renovations have restored much of its former glory. The original Great Hall is still intact, and near the edge of the inner courtyard there's a replica of a trebuchet—a giant catapult used to launch rocks and other projectiles at the enemy. An interesting collection of modern interpretive sculptures has recently been placed around the castle, inside and outside, effectively turning it into a sculpture park. Caerphilly is 7 miles north of Cardiff.