Excursions to the Far East and Black Sea Coast Feature

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Spotlight on the Kurds

There are an estimated 20 million Kurds living in the mountainous region that covers parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Separated by ethnicity and language from their neighbors, the Kurds have for centuries found themselves the subjects of the area's various rulers.

Turkey has the region's largest Kurdish population, with an estimated 12 million, most of them living in the country's southeast region. When the new Turkish republic was founded in 1923, severe restrictions on Kurdish language and culture were put in place, part of a larger effort to unite the country's various ethnic groups under one national identity. During the 1980s, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a militant Marxist group, began a bloody separatist war against the Turkish state that ended up costing the lives of more than 30,000 and caused great damage to social and economic life in the southeast. The PKK called for a ceasefire in 1999, after its leader was captured by Turkey, and its fighters retreated to the mountains of northern Iraq. In late 2004, though, it resumed its attacks on Turkish troops in the southeast, although the violence is, for the most part, restricted to remote parts of the region and is nowhere near the level of the 1980s and '90s. At the same time, as part of its efforts to join the European Union, Turkey has over the last few years passed legislation aimed at easing the cultural and political restrictions on the Kurds and has promised to revitalize the local economy, bringing a guarded sense of hope to the battle-scarred region.

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