A bustling commercial center crowned with the ruins of a medieval castle, Torres Vedras is best known for its extensive fortifications—a system of trenches and fortresses erected by the Duke of Wellington in 1810 as part of a secret plan for the defense of Lisbon. It was here, at the Lines of Torres Vedras, that the surprised French army under Napoléon's Marshal Masséna was routed. You can see reconstructed remnants
of the fortifications on a hill above town and throughout the area. The surrounding hills and countryside make for a picturesque drive to one of the several beaches on the coast 20–30 minutes away.