Starting as a market town in the 10th century, Kraków became Poland's capital in 1037. Until as recently as the 19th century walls encircled the Old Town; these have been replaced by the Planty, a ring of parkland, in the 1820s. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the city expanded, and many interesting examples of architecture from that period can be found within the second ring, marked
by Aleje and Dietla streets. In the late 20th century another phase of the city's development began farther out, and it continues today.
Most major historical attractions are within walking distance in the compact Old Town, but you'll also find very interesting sights further outside the city center, including Kościuszko's Mound to the west and Nowa Huta to the east of the city center. The Wawel Hill—with the Royal Castle and cathedral—is perched between the south end of the Planty Ring and the Vistula River.
To the immediate southeast of the Old Town is the old Jewish quarter of Kazimierz. This was once a separate town, chartered in 1335 by its founder, King Kazimierz the Great. In 1495 Kraków's Jews were expelled from the city by King John Albert, and they resettled in Kazimierz. The Jewish community there came to an abrupt and tragic end during World War II. In 1941, the Jews of Kazimierz were moved first to a Jewish ghetto across the Vistula River in Podgórze, then to the Płaszów concentration camp. Most who survived Płaszów were transported to their deaths in the much larger concentration camp at Auschwitz–Birkenau. The story of the few Jews who escaped Płaszów through the help of businessman Oskar Schindler formed the basis of Thomas Keneally's book (and Steven Spielberg's film) Schindler's List.
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Building/ Architectural Site 1
Castle/ Palace/ Chateau 1
Educational Institution 2
House/ Mansion/ Villa 1
Museum/ Gallery 8
Neighborhood/ Street 3
Plaza/ Square/ Piazza 1
Religious Building/ Site/ Shrine 11