The Times Square, Piccadilly Circus, and St. Basil's Square of ancient Athens, the Agora was once the focal point of urban life. All the principal urban roads and country highways traversed it; the procession of the great Panathenaea Festival, composed of chariots, magistrates, virgins, priests, and sacrificial animals, crossed it on the way to the Acropolis; the Assembly met here first, before moving to the Pnyx; it was where merchants squabbled over the price of olive oil; the forum where Socrates met with his students; and centuries later, where St. Paul went about his missionary task. Lying just under the citadel of the Acropolis, it was indeed the heart of the ancient city and a general meeting place, where news was exchanged and bargains transacted, alive with all the rumors and gossip of the marketplace. The Agora became important under Solon (6th century BC), founder of Athenian democracy; construction continued for almost a millennium. Today, the site's sprawling confusion of stones, slabs, and foundations is dominated by the best-preserved Doric temple in Greece, the Hephaistion, built during the 5th century BC, and the impressive reconstructed Stoa of Attalos II, which houses the Museum of the Agora Excavations.
You can still experience the sights and sounds of the marketplace in Monastiraki, the former Turkish bazaar area, which retains vestiges of the 400-year period when Greece was subject to the Ottoman Empire.
The Varvakeios Agora (Central Market) around Athinas avenue sells fish, meat, and produce from all over Greece and is the major supplier for the city—and even serves as an indicator for the country's economic health. It is a bustling and colorful complex of both indoor and outdoor stalls and shops scattered around the back streets. Lovers of flea markets will also love this area. Street vendors loudly advertise their stock, trying to lure customers to buy all sorts of bric-a-brac, spices, sausages, fresh vegetables, tools, and household goods.
Inside the covered market there are also a couple of age-old tavernas where you can taste traditional patsas (tripe soup) alongside the traders who come to have a rest from the day’s trade. The rembetika joint Stoa Athanaton is also housed in the Varvakeios, but is accessible only from Sofokleous, one of the side streets.