Although Berwick-upon-Tweed now lies just inside the border of England, historians estimate that it’s changed hands between the Scots and the English 14 times. An interesting quirk of history relating to this is that, due to a border dispute while Britain was fighting the Crimean War in the 1850s, Berwick-upon-Tweed was excluded from the official peace treaty in 1856. It thus technically remained at war with Russia until the 1960s, when the Soviets sent a representative to sign a treaty with the town mayor.
The market on Wednesday and Saturday draws customers from both England and Scotland. The town's thick 16th-century ramparts (defensive walls), extraordinarily well preserved, completely encircle the old town. The parish church, Holy Trinity, was built during Cromwell's Puritan Commonwealth with stone from a castle.