Australian emergency services are extremely efficient. Local people usually help each other unquestioningly, too. For theft, wallet loss, small road accidents, and minor emergencies, contact the nearest police station. In a medical or dental emergency, ask your hotel staff for information on and directions to the nearest hospital or clinic; taxi drivers should also know how to find one.
Pack a basic first-aid kit, especially if you're venturing into more remote areas. If you'll be carrying any medication, bring your doctor's contact information and prescription authorizations. Most Australian pharmacies only fill prescriptions from Australian doctors, so bring enough medication for your trip.
Pharmacies usually open between 9 and 5, but most towns have a 24-hour pharmacy system so that one pharmacy is always open. In an emergency, the local police station can tell you which pharmacy is open, as can hospitals.