Religion in Japan
Although both Buddhism and Shinto permeate Japanese society and life, most Japanese are blissfully unaware of the distinction between what is Shinto and what is Buddhist. A wedding is often a Shinto ceremony while a funeral is a Buddhist rite.
There's a saying in Japan that you're Shinto at birth (marked with a Shinto ceremony), Christian when you marry (if you choose a Western-style wedding), and Buddhist when you die (honored with a Buddhist funeral). The Japanese take a utilitarian view of religion and use each as suits the occasion. One prays for success in life at a shrine and for the repose of a deceased family member at a temple. There is no thought given to the whys for this—these things simply are. The neighborhood shrine's annual matsuri is a time of giving thanks for prosperity and for blessing homes and local businesses. O-mikoshi, portable shrines for the gods, are enthusiastically carried around the district by young local men. Shouting and much sake drinking are part of the celebration. But it's a celebration first and foremost.
Religion in Numbers
While most Japanese—some 90 million people out of some 128 million total—identify themselves as Buddhist, most also practice and believe in Shinto, even if they don't identify themselves as Shinto followers per se. The two religions overlap and even complement each other even though most Japanese people would not consider themselves as "religious."
Shinto—literally, "the way of the kami (god)"—is a form of animism or nature worship based on myth and rooted to the geography and holy places of the land. It's an ancient belief system, dating back perhaps as far as 500 BC and is indigenous to Japan. The name is derived from a Chinese word, shin tao, coined in the 8th century AD, when divine origins were first ascribed to the royal Yamato family. Fog-enshrouded mountains, pairs of rocks, primeval forests, and geothermal activity are all manifestations of the kami-sama (honorable gods). For many Japanese, the Shinto aspect of their lives is simply the realm of the kami-sama and is not attached to a religious framework as it would be in the West. In that sense, the name describes more a way of thinking than a religion.
A Korean king gave a statue of Shaka—the first Buddha, Prince Gautama—to the Yamato Court in AD 538. The Soga clan adopted the foreign faith, using it as a vehicle to change the political order of the day. After battling for control of the country, they established themselves as political rulers, and Buddhism took permanent hold. Simultaneously, Japan sent its first ambassadors to China, inaugurating the importation of Chinese culture, writing, and religion into Japan. By the 8th century, Buddhism was well established.
Japanese Buddhism developed in three waves. In the Heian period (794-1185), Esoteric Buddhism was introduced primarily by two priests, both of whom studied in China: Saicho and Kukai. Saicho established a temple on Mt. Hie near Kyoto, making it the most revered mountain in Japan after Mt. Fuji. Kukai established the Shingon sect of Esoteric Buddhism on Mt. Koya, south of Nara. In Japanese temple architecture, Esoteric Buddhism introduced the separation of the temple into an interior for the initiated and an outer laypersons' area.
Amidism (Pure Land) was the second wave, introduced by the monk Honen (1133-1212), and it flourished in the late 12th century until the introduction of Zen in 1185. Its adherents saw the world emerging from a period of darkness during which Buddhism had been in decline, and asserted that salvation was offered only to the believers in Amida, a Nyorai (Buddha) or enlightened being. Amidism's promise of salvation and its subsequent versions of heaven and hell earned it the appellation "Devil's Christianity" from visiting Christian missionaries in the 16th century.
In the Post-Heian period (1185 to the present) the influences of Nichiren and Zen Buddhist philosophies pushed Japanese Buddhism in new directions. Nichiren (1222-82) was a monk who insisted on the primacy of the Lotus Sutra, the supposed last and greatest sutra of Shaka. Zen Buddhism was attractive to the samurai class's ideals of discipline and worldly detachment and thus spread throughout Japan in the 12th century. It was later embraced as a nonintellectual path to enlightenment by those in search of a direct experience of the sublime. More recently, Zen has been adopted by a growing number of people in the West as a way to move beyond the subject/object duality that characterizes Western thought.
Shrine and State
While the modern Japanese constitution expressly calls for a separation of church and state, it hasn't always been this way. In fact, twice over the last 150 years, Shinto was the favored religion and the government used all of its influence to support it.
During the Meiji Restoration (1868), the emperor was made sovereign leader of Japan, and power that had been spread out among the shoguns was consolidated in the Imperial House. Shinto was favored over Buddhism for two reasons. First, according to Shinto, the members of the imperial family were direct descendents of the kami who had formed Japan. The second reason was more practical: many of the Buddhist temples were regional power bases that relied upon the shoguns for patronage. Relegating Buddhism to a minor religion with no official support would have a weakening effect on the shoguns, while the government could use Shinto shrines to strengthen its power base.
Indeed, Buddhism was actively suppressed. Temples were closed, priests were harassed, and priceless art was either destroyed or sold. The collections of Japanese art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC, were just two of the indirect beneficiaries of this policy.
During the Pacific War (the Japanese term for World War II), Shinto was again used by the military (with the complicity of the Imperial House) to justify an aggressive stance in Asia. (It should be noted that Kokuchukai Buddhism was also used to sanction the invasion of other countries.) The emperor was a god and therefore infallible. Since the Japanese people were essentially one family with the emperor at the head, they were a superior race that was meant to rule the lesser peoples of Asia.
Once ancestor worship was allied with worship of the emperor, the state became something worth dying for. So potent was this mix that General Douglas MacArthur identified state Shinto as one of the first things that had to be dismantled upon the surrender of Japan. The emperor could stay, but shrine and state had to go.
Although there are religious festivals and holy days observed throughout the year, the two biggest events in the Japanese religious calendar are New Year's (Oshogatsu) and Obon. New Year's is celebrated from January 1 to 3. Many people visit temples the night of December 31 to ring in the New Year or in the coming weeks. Temple bells are struck 108 times to symbolize ridding oneself of the 108 human sins. This practice is called hatsumode. Food stalls are set up close to the popular places, and the atmosphere is festive and joyous. Many draw fortune slips called omikuji to see what kind of a year the oracle has in store for them.
The other major religious event in the Japanese calendar is the Obon holiday, traditionally held from August 13 to 15. Obon is the Japanese festival of the dead when the spirits come back to visit the living. Most people observe the ritual by returning to their hometown or the home of their grandparents. Graves are cleaned and respects are paid to one's ancestors. Family ties are strengthened and renewed.
Visiting a Buddhist Temple
The first thing to do when visiting a temple is to stop at the gate (called mon in Japanese), put your hands together, and bow. Once inside the gate, you should stop to wash your hands at the stone receptacle usually found immediately upon entering the temple grounds. Fill one of the ladles with water using your right hand and wash your left hand first. Then refill the ladle with water using your left hand and wash your right hand. Some people also pour water in their right hand to rinse their mouth, but this is not necessary.
After washing your hands, you can ring the temple bell if you choose.
Next, light a candle in front of the main altar of the temple and place it inside the glass cabinet. Then put your hands together and bow. You can also light three sticks of incense (lighting them together is customary) and put them in the large stone or brass stand. This action is also followed with a prayer and a bow. It is important to note, however, that while some people may light both a candle and three sticks of incense, others may just do one or the other. Some may skip this part entirely.
After you finish, you can proceed to the main altar, put your hands together, bow, and pray. Many people recite one of the Buddhist sutras.
If you'd like to have a closer look at the interior of the altar building, you can climb the steps and look inside. At this time, you can also throw a coin inside the wooden box on the top step as an offering, again putting your hands together and bowing.
Most temples have sub-altars dedicated to different Buddhist saints or deities, and you can repeat the candle, incense, and prayer steps observed at the main altar if you choose.
After praying at the main altar and/or sub-altar, you'll probably want to spend some time walking around the temple grounds. Most temples are incredibly beautiful places. Many have gardens and sculpture worthy of a visit in their own right.
Upon leaving the temple, you should stop at the gate, turn, put your hands together, and bow to give thanks.
Visiting a Shinto Shrine
Shrines, like temples, have gates, though they are called torii and are often painted bright orange. In terms of their appearance, torii look much like the mathematical symbol for pi. As with the gates of temples, one enters and exits through the torii bowing on the way in and again on the way out. However, when visiting a shrine one claps twice before bowing. This is to summon the kami. Once you have their attention, you clap twice again to pay them homage.
Inside the shrine, you wash your hands as you would at a temple (left hand and then right hand). You then proceed to the main altar, clap twice, and bow. In a shrine, clapping twice and bowing is often repeated as there may be special trees, stones, and other holy objects situated throughout the grounds.
After you have finished visiting the shrine, you should turn around at the torii, clap twice, and bow upon leaving.
The standard work on Buddhism in Japan is Richard Bowring's The Religious Traditions of Japan, 500-1600. Also recommended is Kenji Matsuo's A History of Japanese Buddhism. Sokyo Ono's Shinto: The Kami Way is a good introduction to Shinto. For those wanting to learn more about Zen Buddhism, Daisetz Suzuki's Zen and Japanese Culture is a wonderfully clear and evocative study of the subject.
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