Go for loose, breathable, sturdy fabrics. Pants are better than shorts: they protect from the sun, and they won't make you stick out (shorts are inappropriate for most religious sites, in any case). Women should opt for pants or skirts or dresses that go below the knee. Pack light but sturdy walking shoes that are easy to take off (you'll need to do so to enter temples), strong sunscreen (the good stuff is costly and hard to find in India), toilet paper, moist towelettes, hand sanitizer, handkerchiefs (for drying off after washing your hands), insect repellent, and a flashlight.
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