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Johannesburg Travel Guide

Cradle of Humankind

This World Heritage Site stretches over an area of about 470 square km (181 square mi), with about 300 caves. Inside these caves, paleoanthropologists have discovered thousands of fossils of hominids and other animals, dating back about 4 million years. The most famous of these fossils are Mrs. Ples, a skull more than 2 million years old, and Little Foot, a skeleton more than 3 million years old.

While the Cradle does not have the world's oldest hominid fossils, it has the most complete fossil record of human evolution of anywhere on earth and has produced more hominid fossils than anywhere else.

Archaeological finds at the Cradle of Humankind include 1.7-million-year-old stone tools, the oldest recorded in southern Africa. At Swartkrans, near Sterkfontein, a collection of burned bones tells us that our ancestors could manage fire more than 1 million years ago.

Not all the fossil sites in the Cradle are open to the public, but a tour of the Sterkfontein Caves and the visitor center provides an excellent overview of the archaeological work in progress, and a trip to Maropeng, a much larger visitor center 10 km (6 mi) from the Sterkfontein Caves, provides even more background. Special tours to fossil sites with expert guides can be booked at either of the visitor centers.

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