In 1867, British army engineer Charles Warren discovered this spacious, sloping access tunnel in the City of David—note the ancient chisel marks on the walls—which burrowed under the city wall to a point some 50 feet above the Gihon Spring, in the valley. A narrow vertical shaft dropped into the spring, giving access to ancient water drawers. The presumption was that it was pre-Davidic, and perhaps the actual biblical tzinnor (gutter or water shaft) of II Samuel
5 through which David's warriors penetrated the city, circa 1000 BC. Archaeologists now believe that the space was only created in a later era; and a dig around the Gihon Spring at the bottom of the hill has uncovered a different access to the spring, protected by two towers that date back to the Middle Bronze Age, centuries before David. The biblical story remains intact for the moment, but Warren's Shaft may not have been the exact place where it occurred.
Off Ophel Rd., Jerusalem, 97400, Israel